Where humans and their cultures have emerged from their adaptations, their knowledge of their use. Biodiversity has two inseparable dimensions, the Biological and cultural. Thus a property of living things and that makes them different cultural and unique. The 50-80% of the planet's biodiversity is found in tropical countries (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Zaire, Madagascar and Indonesia) who have suffered in the last 100 years, huge losses of tropical forests and the disappearance of its indigenous population at the rate of one tribe each year. Half of 6,000 indigenous languages spoken in the world today are in danger of disappearing within the next 100 years will disappear with her knowledge and management techniques of biological diversity on earth (UNL, IUCN, UNEP-1992) 200 000 000 Indians (5% of the population of the earth) maintain levels of biodiversity, are custodians of the biodiversity of the land. The struggle is their natural habitat for survival.
The loss of ecosystems means the disappearance of the biological culture. The importance of the Amazon forest is not simply the effect of heavy rain or intense sunshine and rich soil consume the forest. No. The forest part of the climate as shaped by evapotranspiration, carbon fixation (average, seventy tons per hectare) redefining the relationship of incidence of solar radiation with the refraction of the energy (albedo). Involved, not only in the water balance in the region with evapotranspiration as a thermal equilibrium, but contributes to the dynamic equilibrium of the global climate. The critical areas are located in threatened tropical forests (Mittermier-1992), occupy 1% of the planet's surface and represent 12% of tropical forests still exist (his disappearance is expected in 40 years), housing between 30% and 40% of the biodiversity of the earth.